Résumé : Background: A mismatch between oxygen delivery (DO2) and consumption (VO2) is associated with increased perioperative morbidity and mortality. Hyperlactatemia is often used as an early screening tool, but this non-continuous measurement requires intermittent arterial line sampling. Having a non-invasive tool to rapidly detect inadequate DO2 is of great clinical relevance. The respiratory exchange ratio (RER) can be easily measured in all intubated patients and has been shown to predict postoperative complications. We therefore aimed to assess the discriminative ability of the RER to detect an inadequate DO2 as reflected by hyperlactatemia in patients having intermediate-to-high risk abdominal surgery. Methods: This historical cohort study included all consecutive patients who underwent intermediate-to-high risk surgery from January 1st, 2014, to April 30th, 2019 except those who did not have RER and/or arterial lactate measured. Blood lactate levels were measured routinely at the beginning and end of surgery and RER was calculated at the same moment as the blood gas sampling. The present study tested the hypothesis that RER measured at the end of surgery could detect hyperlactatemia at that time. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was constructed to assess if RER calculated at the end of the surgery could detect hyperlactatemia. The chosen RER threshold corresponded to the highest value of the sum of the specificity and the sensitivity (Youden Index). Results: Among the 996 patients available in our study cohort, 941 were included and analyzed. The area under the ROC curve was 0.73 (95% CI: 0.70 to 0.76; p < 0.001), with a RER threshold of 0.75, allowing to discriminate a lactate > 1.5 mmol/L with a sensitivity of 87.5% and a specificity of 49.5%. Conclusion: In mechanically ventilated patients undergoing intermediate to high-risk abdominal surgery, the RER had moderate discriminative abilities to detect hyperlactatemia. Increased values should prompt clinicians to investigate for the presence of hyperlactatemia and treat any potential causes of DO2/VO2 mismatch as suggested by the subsequent presence of hyperlactatemia.