Résumé : Background: Despite efforts to reduce the burden of female genital mutilation (FGM) in Guinea, the practice remains prevalent, and health care providers are increasingly being implicated in its medicalization. This formative study was conducted to understand the factors that facilitate or impede the health sector in providing FGM prevention and care services to inform the development of health sector-based interventions. Methods: Between April and May 2018, a mixed methods formative study was carried out using a rapid assessment methodology in three regions of Guinea—Faranah, Labe and Conakry. A structured questionnaire was completed by one hundred and fifty health care providers of different cadres and 37 semi-structured interviews were conducted with health care providers, women seeking services at public health clinics and key stakeholders, including health systems managers, heads of professional associations and schools of nursing, midwifery, and medicine as well as representatives of the Ministry of Health. Eleven focus group discussions were conducted with female and male community members. Results: This study revealed health systems factors, attitudinal factors held by health care providers, and other factors, that may not only promote FGM medicalization but also impede a comprehensive health sector response. Our findings confirm that there is currently no standardized pre-service training on how to assess, document and manage complications of FGM nor are there interventions to promote the prevention of the practice within the health sector. This research also demonstrates the deeply held beliefs of health care providers and community members that perpetuate this practice, and which need to be addressed as part of a health sector approach to FGM prevention. Conclusion: As integral members of FGM practicing communities, health care providers understand community beliefs and norms, making them potential change agents. The health sector can support them by incorporating FGM content into their clinical training, ensuring accountability to legal and policy standards, and promoting FGM abandonment as part of a multi-sectoral approach. The findings from this formative research have informed the development of a health sector intervention that is being field tested as part of a multi-country implementation research study in Guinea, Kenya, and Somalia.