par Innocenti, Bernardo
Référence Human Orthopaedic Biomechanics: Fundamentals, Devices and Applications, Elsevier, page (9-24)
Publication Publié, 2022-01
Partie d'ouvrage collectif
Résumé : Even if the human body is composed of different cells, tissues, and organs, the musculoskeletal system is like a machine; therefore, it is possible to apply the principle of mechanical engineering to analyze its mechanical and structural functions. In general, its materials are subjected to the same constitutional laws that are used to explain the behavior of common industrial materials, such as the elastic or the elasto-plastic constitutive material laws, primarily used to model bones and metals, and the viscoelastic or the hyperelastic formulations, mainly used for modeling soft tissues and rubber-like materials, respectively. Hence, it is possible to model each structure (and even each substructure) with an appropriate material model, which associates a certain applied force (under static or dynamic conditions) with the relative displacement. Such constitutional equations are usually a function of several properties, the material properties, determined experimentally, which are specific for each structure and, usually, differ from person to person. In this chapter, we illustrate the most common material models, and relative material properties, used to represent biological tissues and artificial material used in orthopedic mechanics; such information forms the basis of modeling and analyzing properly the musculoskeletal system and its functions.