Résumé : Abstract Over the last decade, field investigations, laboratory experiments, geophysical exploration and petrological, geochemical and numerical modelling have provided insight into the mechanisms of phreatic and hydrothermal eruptions. These eruptions are driven by sudden flashing of ground- or hydrothermal water to steam and are strongly influenced by the interaction of host rock and hydrothermal system. Aquifers hosted in volcanic edifices, calderas and rift environments can be primed for instability by alteration processes affecting rock permeability and/or strength, while magmatic fluid injection(s), earthquakes or other subtle triggers can promote explosive failure. Gas emission, ground deformation and seismicity may provide short- to medium-term forerunner signals of these eruptions, yet a definition of universal precursors remains a key challenge. Looking forward in the next 10 years, improved warning and hazard assessment will require integration of field and experimental data with models combining case studies, as well as development of new monitoring methods integrated by machine learning approaches.