Résumé : Background: Low birth weight (LBW) is a major factor of neonate mortality that particularly affects developing countries. However, the scarcity of data to support decision making to reduce LBW occurrence is a major obstacle in sub-Saharan Africa. The aim of this research was to determine the prevalence and associated factors of LBW at the Yako health district in a rural area of Burkina Faso. Methods: A cross sectional survey was conducted at four peripheral health centers among mothers and their newly delivered babies. The mothers’ socio-demographic and obstetrical characteristics were collected by face-to-face interview or by review of antenatal care books. Maternal malaria was tested by standard microscopy and neonates’ birth weights were documented. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with LBW. A p-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Of 600 neonates examined, the prevalence of low birth weight was 11.0%. Adjustment for socio-demographic characteristic, medical conditions, obstetrical history, malaria prevention measures by multivariate logistic regression found that being a primigravid mother (aOR = 1.8, [95% CI: 1.1–3.0]), the presence of malaria infection (aOR = 1.9, [95% CI: 1.1–3.5]), the uptake of less than three doses of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine for the intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy (IPTp-SP) (aOR = 2.2, [95% CI: 1.3–3.9]), the presence of maternal fever at the time of delivery (aOR = 2.8, [95% CI: 1.5–5.3]) and being a female neonate (aOR = 1.9, [95% CI: 1.1–3.3]) were independently associated with an increased risk of LBW occurrence. The number of antenatal visits performed by the mother during her pregnancy did not provide any direct protection for low birth weight. Conclusion: The prevalence of LBW remained high in the study area. Maternal malaria, fever and low uptake of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine doses were significantly associated with LBW and should be adequately addressed by public health interventions.