Résumé : The foundations of stellar nucleosynthesis have been established more than 70 years ago. Since then, much progress has been made, both on the theoretical side, with stellar evolution and nucleosynthesis models of increasing complexity, using more and more accurate nuclear data, and on the observational side, with the number of analyzed stars growing tremendously. In between, the complex machinery of abundance determination has been refined, taking into account model atmospheres of non-solar chemical composition, three-dimensional, non-LTE (non-local thermody-namic equilibrium) effects, and a growing number of atomic and molecular data. Neutron-capture nucleosynthesis processes, and in particular the s-process, have been scrutinized in various types of evolved stars, among which asymptotic giant branch stars, carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars and post-AGB stars. We review here some of the successes of the comparison between models and abundance measurements of heavy elements in stars, including in binaries, and outline some remaining unexplained features.