Résumé : Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is a common complex clinical syndrome for which there are currently few evidence-based therapies. As patients with HFpEF very often present with comorbidities comprising the metabolic syndrome, we hypothesized, that metabolic syndrome could lead over time to the development of diastolic dysfunction and HFpEF. Obesity-prone rats were exposed to high-fat diet and compared to obesity-resistant rats fed with standard chow. Phenotyping of metabolic syndrome, associated with echocardiographic and cardiac hemodynamic measurements, was performed after 4 and 12 months. Blood and myocardial tissue sampling were performed for pathobiological evaluation. High-fat diet in obesity-prone rats elicited metabolic syndrome, characterized by increased body and abdominal fat weights, glucose intolerance and hyperlipidemia, as well as increased left ventricular (LV) systolic pressure (after 12 months). This was associated with LV diastolic dysfunction (assessed by increased LV end-diastolic pressure) and pulmonary hypertension (assessed by increased right ventricular systolic pressure). Echocardiography revealed significant concentric LV hypertrophy, while LV ejection fraction was preserved. LV remodeling was associated with cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, as well as myocardial and perivascular fibrosis. Circulating levels of soluble ST2 (the interleukin-1 receptor-like) markedly increased in rats with HFpEF, while plasma NT-proBNP levels decreased. RNA-sequencing analysis identified clusters of genes implicated in fatty acid metabolism and calcium-dependent contraction as upregulated pathways in the myocardium of rats with HFpEF. High-fat diet during 12 months in obesity-prone rats led to the development of a relevant preclinical model of HFpEF with multiple comorbidities, suitable for investigating novel therapeutic interventions.