Résumé : For almost 30 years, researchers have investigated the impact of oxidation of first low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) and then of high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) in pathology. The involvement of myeloperoxidase (MPO) in the oxidation process of these lipoproteins has appeared to play a key role in cardiovascular disease (CVD), such as atherosclerosis. Indeed, it is now confirmed that MPO adsorbs on lipoproteins and specifically modifies them, generating pro-atherogenic lipoproteins commonly named Mox-LDLs and Mox-HDLs. In this chapter, the role of MPO in the contribution to modifications of LDLs and HDLs is discussed as well as its roles in cardiovascular disease development linked to oxidized lipoproteins.