Résumé : Waterborne pathogens are heterogeneously distributed across various spatiotemporal scales in water resources, and representative sampling is therefore crucial for accurate risk assess-ment. Since regulatory monitoring of microbiological water quality is usually conducted at fixed time intervals, it can miss short-term fecal contamination episodes and underestimate underlying microbial risks. In the present paper, we developed a new automated sampling methodology based on near real-time measurement of a biochemical indicator of fecal pollution. Online monitoring of β-D-glucuronidase (GLUC) activity was used to trigger an automated sampler during fecal contamination events in a drinking water supply and at an urban beach. Significant increases in protozoan parasites, microbial source tracking markers and E. coli were measured during short-term (<24 h) fecal pollution episodes, emphasizing the intermittent nature of their occurrence in water. Synchro-nous triggering of the automated sampler with online GLUC activity measurements further re-vealed a tight association between the biochemical indicator and culturable E. coli. The proposed event sampling methodology is versatile and in addition to the two triggering modes validated here, others can be designed based on specific needs and local settings. In support to regulatory monitoring schemes, it should ultimately help gathering crucial data on waterborne pathogens more efficiently during episodic fecal pollution events.