Résumé : We hypothesized acute moderate and drastic reductions in uric acid concentration exert different effects on arterial function in healthy normotensive and hypertensive adults. Thirty-six adults (aged 58 [55;63] years) with or without primary hypertension participated in a three-way, randomized, double-blind, crossover study in which [placebo] and [febuxostat] and [febuxostat and rasburicase] were administered. Febuxostat and rasburicase reduce the uric acid concentration by xanthine oxidoreductase inhibition and uric acid degradation into allantoin, respectively. Endothelial function was assessed in response to acetylcholine, sodium nitroprusside, heating (with and without nitric oxide synthase inhibition) using a laser Doppler imager. Arterial stiffness was determined by applanation tonometry, together with blood pressure, renin–angiotensin system activity, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Uric acid concentration was 5.1 [4.1;5.9], 1.9 [1.2;2.2] and 0.2 [0.2;0.3] mg/dL with [placebo], [febuxostat] and [febuxostat–rasburicase] treatments, respectively (p < 0.0001). Febuxostat improved endothelial response to heat particularly when nitric oxide synthase was inhibited (p < 0.05) and reduced diastolic and mean arterial pressure (p = 0.008 and 0.02, respectively). The augmentation index decreased with febuxostat (ANOVA p < 0.04). Myeloperoxidase activity profoundly decreased with febuxostat combined with rasburicase (p < 0.0001). When uric acid dropped, plasmatic antioxidant capacity markedly decreased, while superoxide dismutase activity increased (p < 0.0001). Other inflammatory and oxidant markers did not differ. Acute moderate hypouricemia encompasses minor improvements in endothelial function, blood pressure, and arterial stiffness. Clinical Trial Registration: NCT03395977, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03395977.