Article révisé par les pairs
Résumé : A large number of genetic variation studies have identified cases of mitochondrial genome introgression in animals, indicating that reproductive barriers among closely related species are often permeable. Because of its sheer size, the impact of hybridization on the evolution of the nuclear genome is more difficult to apprehend. Only a few studies have explored it recently thanks to recent progress in DNA sequencing and genome assembly. Here, we analysed whole-genome sequence variation among multiple individuals of two sister species of leaf beetles inside their hybrid zone, in which asymmetric mitochondrial genome introgression had previously been established. We used a machine learning approach based on computer simulations for training to identify regions of the nuclear genome that were introgressed. We inferred asymmetric introgression of ≈2% of the genome, in the same direction that was observed for the mitochondrial genome. Because a previous study based on a reduced-representation sequencing approach was not able to detect this introgression, we conclude that whole-genome sequencing is necessary when the fraction of the introgressed genome is small. We also analysed the whole-genome sequence of a hybrid individual, demonstrating that hybrids have the capacity to backcross with the species for which virtually no introgression was observed. Our data suggest that one species has recently invaded the range of the other and/or some alleles that where transferred from the invaded into the invading species could be under positive selection and may have favoured the adaptation of the invading species to the Alpine environment.