Résumé : The interest in nano-sized lipid vesicles in nano-biotechnology relies on their use as mimics for endosomes, exosomes, and nanocarriers for drug delivery. The interactions between nanoscale size lipid vesicles and cell membranes involve spontaneous interbilayer lipid transfer by several mechanisms, such as monomer transfer or hemifusion. Experimental approaches toward monitoring lipid transfer between nanoscale-sized vesicles typically consist of transfer assays by fluorescence microscopy requiring the use of labels or calorimetric measurements, which in turn require a large amount of sample. Here, the capability of a label-free surface-sensitive method, quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D), was used to monitor lipid transfer kinetics at minimal concentrations and to elucidate how lipid physicochemical properties influence the nature of the transfer mechanism and dictate its dynamics. By studying time-dependent phase transitions obtained from nanoviscosity measurements, the transfer rates (unidirectional or bidirectional) between two vesicle populations consisting of lipids with the same head group and differing alkyl chain length can be estimated. Lipid transfer is asymmetric and unidirectional from shorter-chain lipid donor vesicles to longer-chain lipid acceptor vesicles. The transfer is dramatically reduced when the vesicle populations are incubated at temperatures below the melting of one of the vesicle populations.