Résumé : Obesity and diet are associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk, and microbiome could mediate this risk factor. To investigate this interaction, we performed a case-control study (34 CRC cases and 32 controls) and analyzed fecal microbiota composition using 16S rRNA metabarcoding and sub-sequential shotgun analyses of genomic bacterial DNA to evaluate the role of microbiome and diet in CRC etiology, taking into account vitamin D and other risk biomarkers. Dietary habits were evaluated using a short questionnaire. Multivariate methods for data integration and mediation analysis models were used to investigate causal relationships. CRC cases were significantly more often deficient in vitamin D than controls (p = 0.04); FokI and CYP24A1 polymorphism frequency were different between cases and controls (p = 0.03 and p = 0.02, respectively). A diet poor in fatty fish and rich in carbohydrates was found to be significantly associated with CRC risk (p = 0.011). The mediation analysis confirmed the significant role of the microbiome in mediating CRC risk-increasing levels of Bifidobacteria/Escherichia genera ratio, an indicator of “healthy” intestinal microbiome, can overcome the effect of diet on CRC risk (p = 0.03). This study suggests that microbiome mediates the diet effect on CRC risk, and that vitamin D, markers of inflammation, and adipokines are other factors to consider in order to achieve a better knowledge of the whole carcinogenic process.