Résumé : The high conservation of nucleotides of the T-loop, including their chemical identity, are hallmarks of tRNAs from organisms belonging to the three Domains of Life. These structural characteristics allow the T-loop to adopt a peculiar intraloop conformation able to interact specifically with other conserved residues of the D-loop, which ultimately folds the mature tRNA in a unique functional canonical L-shaped architecture. Paradoxically, despite the high conservation of modified nucleotides in the T-loop, enzymes catalyzing their formation depend mostly on the considered organism, attesting for an independent but convergent evolution of the post-transcriptional modification processes. The driving force behind this is the preservation of a native conformation of the tRNA elbow that underlies the various interactions of tRNA molecules with different cellular components.