Résumé : Background and Aims: Minimally invasive treatments of anastomotic benign biliary stricture (BBS) after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) include endoscopic placement of multiple plastic stents or fully covered self-expandable metal stents (FCSEMSs). No multiyear efficacy data are available on FCSEMS treatment after OLT. Methods: We prospectively studied long-term efficacy and safety of FCSEMS treatment in adults aged ≥18 years with past OLT, cholangiographically confirmed BBS, and an indication for ERCP with stent placement. Stent removal was planned after 4 to 6 months, with subsequent follow-up until 5 years or stricture recurrence. Long-term outcomes were freedom from stricture recurrence, freedom from recurrent stent placement, and stent-related serious adverse events (SAEs). Results: In 41 patients, long-term follow-up began after FCSEMS removal (n = 33) or observation of complete distal migration (CDM) (n = 8). On an intention-to-treat basis, the 5-year probability of remaining stent-free after FCSEMS removal or observation of CDM was 48.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 33.2%-64.7%) among all patients and 60.9% (95% CI, 43.6%-78.2%) among 31 patients with over 4 months of FCSEMS indwell time. In 28 patients with stricture resolution at FCSEMS removal or observed CDM (median, 5.0 months indwell time), the 5-year probability of no stricture recurrence was 72.6% (95% CI, 55.3%-90%). Sixteen patients (39%) had at least 1 related SAE, most commonly cholangitis (n = 10). Conclusions: By 5 years after temporary FCSEMS treatment of post-OLT BBS, approximately half of all patients remained stent-free on an intention-to-treat basis. Stent-related SAEs (especially cholangitis) were common. FCSEMS placement is a viable long-term treatment option for patients with post-OLT BBS. (Clinical trial registration number: NCT01014390.)