Résumé : In order to improve our knowledge of the mechanisms of ageing in animals, the main objective of the thesis was to understand the modulation of such mechanisms by the individual social role, within different social organisations. This objective thus addresses two main questions: i) describing the covariation of the degree of social complexity with ageing patterns; ii) highlighting the underlying cellular and molecular processes. Thanks to complementary and diversified studies (behavioural observations, dosage of the oxidative balance, qPCR measurement of telomere length, proteomics, metabolomics), the present thesis showed that sociality plays a role on ageing at many levels. In the zebra finch, social stress caused by aggression of the conspecifics induces oxidative stress and reduces telomere length in adults. In the sociable weaver, the social environment is of crucial importance during pre- and post-hatch development on the medium term survival of the chicks. Finally, in ants, we were able to show a positive relationship between the degree of sociality and maximum potential life span: this link was caste specific, being only significant for the most social queens. This is inline with a recent review by Lucas and Keller (2020) which concluded that the benefits of sociality are most sensitive for high levels of sociality and particularly in reproductive individuals. With regard to the molecular mechanisms of ageing,we were able to establish a causal chain between social stress, oxidative response and telomere erosion in zebra finches.The role of telomeres as a predictor of offspring survival has been confirmed (over at least 5 years) in the sociable weaver,a cooperative breeder bird. However, this link was not true in queen ants where the longest lived were those with the shortest telomeres. The co-evolution of anti-cancer mechanisms and longevity seems to be conserved since similar strategies are found in taxa as diverse as ants and rodents. On the other hand, and contrary to previous studies conducted on ants, we found that oxidative stress might be a marker of individual ageing. We suggest that the proxies of oxidative stress used so far in ants have been misleading or at least incomplete. Thus, understanding the physiological ageing particularities of ants and other social insects might require finding new relevant and specific markers. Finally, the sirtuins and mTOR signalling pathways, key precursors of which we have detected in ants, are molecular crossroads capable of activating or inhibiting cellular metabolism depending on the cell energy state. According to the studies carried out to date, these signalling pathways are among the first to be able to slow down the effects of ageing and extend life expectancy.However, specific studies need to be carried out to understand their fine regulation and thus assess the universality of these mechanisms in animal ageing. Based on our findings, we propose three points to be further addressed to better understand the mechanisms of ageing in social insects: i) the setup of experiments testing the effectiveness of energy trade-offs involving immunity or digestion metabolism; ii) measuring the telomerase activity among castes of various species in order to explore the telomere and telomere independent roles played by this enzyme in ageing; iii) the need to think about individual longitudinal follow-up and to study wild populations, after the first necessary stages in laboratory.