Résumé : The AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) is a major energy sensor metabolic enzyme that is activated early during T cell immune responses but its role in the generation of effector T cells is still controversial. Using both in vitro and in vivo models of T cell proliferation, we show herein that AMPK is dispensable for early TCR signaling and short-term proliferation but required for sustained long-term T cell proliferation and effector/memory T cell survival. In particular, AMPK promoted accumulation of effector/memory T cells in competitive homeostatic proliferation settings. Transplantation of AMPK-deficient hematopoïetic cells into allogeneic host recipients led to a reduced graft-versus-host disease, further bolstering a role for AMPK in the expansion and pathogenicity of effector T cells. Mechanistically, AMPK expression enhances the mitochondrial membrane potential of T cells, limits reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and resolves ROS-mediated toxicity. Moreover, dampening ROS production alleviates the proliferative defect of AMPK-deficient T cells, therefore indicating a role for an AMPK-mediated ROS control of T cell fitness.