Résumé : Pseudometallophytes are commonly used to study the evolution of metal tolerance and accumulation traits in plants. Within the Arabidopsis genus, the adaptation of Arabidopsis halleri to metalliferous soils has been widely studied, which is not the case for the closely related species Arabidopsis arenosa. We performed an in-depth physiological comparison between the A. halleri and A. arenosa populations from the same polluted site, together with the geographically close non-metallicolous (NM) populations of both species. The ionomes, growth, photosynthetic parameters and pigment content were characterized in the plants that were growing on their native site and in a hydroponic culture under Cd treatments. In situ, the metallicolous (M) populations of both species hyperaccumulated Cd and Zn. The NM population of A. halleri hyperaccumulated Cd and Zn while the NM A. arenosa did not. In the hydroponic experiments, the NM populations of both species accumulated more Cd in their shoots than the M populations. Our research suggests that the two Arabidopsis species evolved different strategies of adaptation to extreme metallic environments that involve fine regulation of metal homeostasis, adjustment of the photosynthetic apparatus and accumulation of flavonols and anthocyanins.