Résumé : BACKGROUND: In addition to their roles in different biological processes, microRNAs in the tumor microenvironment appear to be potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for various malignant diseases, including acute myeloid leukemia (AML). To date, no screening of circulating miRNAs has been carried out in the bone marrow compartment of AML. Accordingly, we investigated the circulating miRNA profile in AML bone marrow at diagnosis (AMLD) and first complete remission post treatment (AMLPT) in comparison to healthy donors (HD). METHODS: Circulating miRNAs were isolated from AML bone marrow aspirations, and a low-density TaqMan miRNA array was performed to identify deregulated miRNAs followed by quantitative RT-PCR to validate the results. Bioinformatic analysis was conducted to evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic accuracy of the highly and significantly identified deregulated miRNA(s) as potential candidate biomarker(s). RESULTS: We found several deregulated miRNAs between the AMLD vs. HD vs. AMLPT groups, which were involved in tumor progression and immune suppression pathways. We also identified significant diagnostic and prognostic signatures with the ability to predict AML patient treatment response. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides a possible role of enriched circulating bone marrow miRNAs in the initiation and progression of AML and highlights new markers for prognosis and treatment monitoring.