Thèse de doctorat
Résumé : The relay protections of the transmission lines play a fundamental role in the electrical power systems. They permit to ensure the security and the reliability of the electricity transmission from the generators to the final consumers. The objective of a relay protection is to provide a corrective action as quickly as possible when an abnormal condition of the power system is detected. The quickness of the response permits to limit the stress on the equipments of the power system and the consumers, to ensure the security of the people, to improve the power quality and to maintain the stability of the power system.The protective relaying systems have evolved a lot since their first implementation in the 1900’s. However, the electrical power systems are in constant evolution and the reliability of the protective relaying systems becomes more and more challenging. The three main characteristics of the relay protections which are security, dependability and speed must be continuously improved to achieve these objectives. The major relay protections implemented nowadays are based on frequency-domain methods. These methods are intrinsically limited in speed by the phasor estimation of the voltage and current signals. More recent methods based on incremental quantities permitted to break this limitation by working directly in time-domain. Despite the speed of these methods, the dependability is usually limited in order to ensure the security.In this work, it is proposed to develop a time-domain ultra-fast non-pilot distance protection based on a Gamma model of line to improve the security, the dependability and the speed, even for long lines and weak power systems. This protection is composed of a loop selection element, a directional element and a distance element. The target tripping time is 4 ms or less.