Article révisé par les pairs
Résumé : BACKGROUND: The impact of HIV infection on malaria is unclear in nonendemic areas. In endemic territories, HIV has been reported to be a risk factor for higher morbidity. Nowadays, as HIV-infected patients travel more, it is important to assess the impact of HIV at the individual level on imported malaria. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This retrospective case-control study collected data on HIV-infected patients diagnosed with malaria (2000-2017) and matched them with two controls based on age, sex and ethnicity. Clinical and biological parameters were collected and compared. RESULTS: We identified 47 cases and matched them with 94 controls. Comparing each of the WHO 2014 severity criteria, hyperparasitemia above 10% (P = 0.006; 12.8 versus 1.1%), icterus (P = 0.042; 14.9 versus 4.3%), acute renal failure (P = 0.022; 25.5 versus 9.6%) and bacteraemia (P = 0.014; 6.4 versus 0%) were significantly more present in HIV-infected patients with a trend to more cerebral malaria (12.8 versus 6.4%). HIV- infected patients were hospitalized more frequently and for longer periods. We observed a higher number of severity criteria when CD4 T-cell count was lower, especially below 200 cells/μl. The difference in occurrence of severe malaria disappeared when patients with CD4 T-cell count more than 500 cells/μl and undetectable viral load (n = 9) were compared with controls. De-novo HIV diagnosis was made during the malaria episode in 17% of cases. CONCLUSION: HIV infection has an impact on the imported malaria profile, although it is unclear whether well controlled HIV-infected patients have a higher risk of severe malaria. HIV-infected patients should be particularly targeted for pretravel advice.