Résumé : Molluscs defend themselves against predation and environmental stressors through the possession of mineralized shells. Mussels are widely used to predict the effects of abiotic factors such as salinity and pH on marine calcifiers in the context of changing ocean conditions. Shell matrix proteins are part of the molecular control regulating the biomineralization processes underpinning shell production. Under changing environmental conditions, differential expression of these proteins leads to the phenotypic plasticity of shells seen in many mollusc species. Low salinity decreases the availability of calcium and inorganic carbon in seawater and consequently energetic constraints often lead to thin, small and fragile shells in Mytilid mussels inhabiting Baltic Sea. To understand how the modulation of shell matrix proteins alters biomineralization, we compared the shell proteomes of mussels living under full marine conditions in the North Sea to those living in the low saline Baltic Sea. Modulation of proteins comprising the Mytilus biomineralization tool kit is observed. These data showed a relative increase in chitin related proteins, decrease in SD-rich, GA-rich shell matrix proteins indicating that altered protein scaffolding and mineral nucleation lead to impaired shell microstructures influencing shell resistance in Baltic Mytilid mussels. Interestingly, proteins with immunity domains in the shell matrix are also found to be modulated. Shell traits such as periostracum thickness, organic content and fracture resistance qualitatively correlates with the modulation of SMPs in Mytilid mussels providing key insights into control of biomineralization at molecular level in the context of changing marine conditions.