par Athanasopoulos, Alexandros;André, Bruno ;Sophianopoulou, Vicky;Gournas, Christos
Référence FEMS microbiology reviews, 43, 6, page (642-673)
Publication Publié, 2019-07-01
Article révisé par les pairs
Résumé : The plasma membrane (PM) performs a plethora of physiological processes, the coordination of which requires spatial and temporal organization into specialized domains of different sizes, stability, protein/lipid composition and overall architecture. Compartmentalization of the PM has been particularly well studied in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, where five non-overlapping domains have been described: The Membrane Compartments containing the arginine permease Can1 (MCC), the H+-ATPase Pma1 (MCP), the TORC2 kinase (MCT), the sterol transporters Ltc3/4 (MCL), and the cell wall stress mechanosensor Wsc1 (MCW). Additional cortical foci at the fungal PM are the sites where clathrin-dependent endocytosis occurs, the sites where the external pH sensing complex PAL/Rim localizes, and sterol-rich domains found in apically grown regions of fungal membranes. In this review, we summarize knowledge from several fungal species regarding the organization of the lateral PM segregation. We discuss the mechanisms of formation of these domains, and the mechanisms of partitioning of proteins there. Finally, we discuss the physiological roles of the best-known membrane compartments, including the regulation of membrane and cell wall homeostasis, apical growth of fungal cells and the newly emerging role of MCCs as starvation-protective membrane domains.