Résumé : Less than one percent of marine natural products characterized since 1963 have been obtained from the phylum Bryozoa which, therefore, still represents a huge reservoir for the discovery of bioactive metabolites with its ~6000 described species. The current review is designed to highlight how bryozoans use sophisticated chemical defenses against their numerous predators and competitors, and which can be harbored for medicinal uses. This review collates all currently available chemoecological data about bryozoans and lists potential applications/benefits for human health. The core of the current review relates to the potential of bryozoan metabolites in human diseases with particular attention to viral, brain, and parasitic diseases. It additionally weighs the pros and cons of total syntheses of some bryozoan metabolites versus the synthesis of non-natural analogues, and explores the hopes put into the development of biotechnological approaches to provide sustainable amounts of bryozoan metabolites without harming the natural environment.