Résumé : Objectives: According to objectification theory, being treated as an object leads people, especially women, toperceive themselves as objects. This self-objectification increases body surveillance and feelings of body shame.While this relation is well-established in the literature, little is known about factors that can buffer againstdetrimental consequences of self-objectification. The current work used a multi-method approach to investigate therole of self-compassion on men and women’s perceptions of their bodies.Methods: Study 1 investigated relations between self-compassion, body surveillance, and body shame (N = 60 men, 104 women) using cross-sectional, self-report data. Study 2 (N = 64 men, 94 women) experimentally manipulated self-objectification and self-compassion, assessing resulting body surveillance and shame, whereas Study 3 (N = 69 men, 189 women) manipulated self-objectification among participants high and low in self-compassion.Results: In Study 1, self-compassion was inversely related to body shame and body surveillance, with self-compassionmoderating the link between surveillance and shame among men. In Study 2, self-compassion protected women in the high self-objectification condition from engaging in greater body surveillance. Yet, in Study 3, selfcompassion failed to buffer the consequences of body surveillance on body shame. An integrative analysis (N = 193 men, 387 women) demonstrated that self-compassion was strongly negatively associated with body shame and body surveillance among men and women, protecting against detrimental consequences of body surveillance among men.Conclusions: The current work contributes to a better understanding of links between constructs related to objectification theory and compassion for oneself in the light of gender differences.