Résumé : Due to their immune-therapeutic value, adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (AT-MSCs) require a better characterization of their interplay with natural killer (NK) cells known to contribute to the graft-versus-leukemia effects. When cultivated together, AT-MSCs showed cellular cytotoxicity and were therefore killed by NK cells in an activating-cytokine dependent manner. In the presence of AT-MSCs, both ligands and receptors known to drive NK cell interactions were significantly altered. During this co-culture, the proliferation of NK cells was slightly reduced, while their IFN-γ and TNF-α secretion was significantly increased. NK cells displayed sustained degranulation accompanied by increased discharge of their cytolytic granules (perforin, granzymes A and B). On the other hand, activated NK cells reduced the expression of serpins C1 and B9 in AT-MSCs. Collectively, reciprocal immuno-biological alterations occur during the co-culture of NK cells and AT-MSCs. Understanding these changes will increase the safety and efficacy of cell-based immuno-oncotherapy.