Résumé : In Tropical Africa, the genus Santiria Blume (Burseraceae) was considered as having one species, Santiria trimera (Oliv.) H.J. Lam ex Aubrév. The recent studies combining morphometric and molecular analysis revealed four isolated genetic groups that can be distinguished with clear morphological features. Following this study, a taxonomic revision of Santiria is conducted in tropical Africa, including the islands of the Gulf of Guinea. Four species are recognized: in addition to Santiria trimera, taxa previously described as Santiria balsamifera Oliv., Santiria ebo (Pierre) H.J. Lam and Santiria obovata (Pierre) H.J. Lam are re-established. Morphological distinctive traits that differentiate the four species are abundance of the elemi, presence/absence of lenticels on the twigs, pubescence of the inflorescence, and immature fruit color. A taxonomic key is provided. Three neotypes and two lectotypes are designated (including synonyms). Each species is described, affinities with other taxa, uses, field pictures and a preliminary conservation status according to the IUCN Categories and Criteria are provided.