Résumé : Phthiocerol dimycocerosates and phenolic glycolipids (PGL) are considered as major virulence elements of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, in particular because of their involvement in cell wall impermeability and drug resistance. The biosynthesis of these waxy lipids involves multiple enzymes, including thioesterase A (TesA). We observed that purified recombinant M. tuberculosis TesA is able to dimerize in the presence of palmitoyl-CoA and our 3D structure model of TesA with this acyl-CoA suggests hydrophobic interaction requirement for dimerization. Furthermore, we identified that methyl arachidonyl fluorophosphonate, which inhibits TesA by covalently modifying the catalytic serine, also displays a synergistic antimicrobial activity with vancomycin further warranting the development of TesA inhibitors as valuable antituberculous drug candidates.