Résumé : Female role models reduce the impact on women of stereotype threat, i.e., of being at risk of conforming to a negative stereotype about one’s social, gender, or racial group (Fine in Delusion of Gender. W.W. Norton & Co., NY, p. 36, 2010 [1]; Steele and Aronson in J Pers Soc Psychol 69:797–811, 1995 [2]). This can lead women scientists to underperform or to leave their scientific career because of negative stereotypes such as, not being as talented or as interested in science as men. Sadly, history rarely provides role models for women scientists; instead, it often renders these women invisible (CafeBabel Homepage [3]). In response to this situation, we present a selection of twelve outstanding women who helped to develop nuclear astrophysics.