Résumé : The secondary metabolite pattern of Eryngium tricuspidatum has been found to be dominated by C17 acetylene oxylipins, according to the chemistry reported in the literature for the genus Eryngium. Two new oxylipins, 11-acetoxy-falcarindiol (4) and 1,2-dihydro-11-acetoxy-falcarindiol (5) have been isolated, along with main related polyacetylenes 1–3 and the already known monoterpene aldehydes 6–10, from the petroleum ether extract of roots. The structure and the absolute configuration of compounds 4 and 5 have been determined by spectroscopic methods as well as by comparison with related known compounds. Polyacetylenes 1–4 inhibited significantly the in vitro growth of a series of cancer cell lines, ranging from 0.3 to 29 μM, whereas 5 was inactive.