par Vincent, Jean Louis
Référence Critical care, 23, 122
Publication Publié, 2019-06
Article révisé par les pairs
Résumé : Until relatively recently, critical illness was considered as a separate entity and the intensive care unit (ICU), often a little cut-off from other areas of the hospital, was in many cases used as a last resort for patients so severely ill that it was no longer possible to care for them on the general ward. However, we are increasingly realizing that critical illness should be seen as just one part of the patient's disease trajectory and how the patient is managed before and after ICU admission has an important role to play in optimizing outcomes. Identifying critical illness early, before it reaches a stage where it is life-threatening, is a challenge and requires a combination of improved and more frequent or continuous monitoring of at-risk patients, staff training to recognize when a patient is deteriorating, a system to "call for help," and an effective response to that call. Critical care doctors are now widely available 24 h a day for consultation, and many hospitals have rapid response or medical emergency teams composed of staff trained in intensive care and with resuscitation skills who can attend patients on the ward who have been identified to be deteriorating, assess them to determine the need for ICU admission, and initiate further tests and/or initial therapy. Early intensivist input may also be important for patients undergoing interventions that are likely to result in ICU admission, e.g., transplantation or cardiac surgery. The patient's continuum after ICU discharge must also be taken into account during their ICU stay, with attempts made to limit the longer-term physical and psychological consequences of critical illness as much as possible. Minimal sedation, good communication, and early mobilization are three factors that can help patients survive their ICU stay with minimal sequelae.