Résumé : Sex differences are observed in the evolution of numerous inflammatory conditions. Women exhibit better clinical courses compared to men in acute inflammatory processes, yet worse prognosis in several chronic inflammatory diseases. Inflammatory markers are significantly different between prepubertal boys and girls, whose sex steroid levels are very low, suggesting genetics play a role. To evaluate the potential influence of the X chromosome, we studied cytokine production and protein phosphorylation following Toll-like receptor (TLR) activation in whole blood and purified neutrophils and monocytes of healthy adults of both sexes as well as subjects with Klinefelter syndrome. We recorded higher levels of inflammatory cytokines in men compared to both women and patients with Klinefelter syndrome following whole blood stimulation. In purified monocytes, production of inflammatory cytokines was also higher in men compared to women, while Klinefelter subjects expressed the same pattern of cytokine production as males, in contrast with whole blood analyses. These differences remained after adjusting for sex steroid levels. Our study revealed higher cytokine inflammatory responses in men than women, yet also compared to subjects with Klinefelter syndrome, who carry two copies of the X chromosome, like women, and thus potentially benefit from the cellular mosaicism of X-linked genes.