Résumé : A key issue in nutritional public health policies is to take into account social disparities behind health inequalities. The transition from adolescence toward adulthood is a critical period regarding changes in health behaviors. This study aimed to determine how consumption of four emblematic food groups (two to favor and two to limit) differed according to socio-economic and cultural characteristics of adolescents and young adults living in Belgium. Two non-consecutive 24-h dietary recalls were carried out in a nationally representative sample of 10–39 year old subjects (n = 1505) included in the Belgian food consumption survey 2014. Weighted daily mean consumption of “fruits and vegetables”, “whole grain bread and cereals”, “refined starchy food”, and “sugary sweetened beverages” (SSB) was calculated and explored in multivariable linear regressions stratified into four age groups. After adjustment, 10–13 year old adolescents living in less educated households daily consumed lower amounts of “fruits and vegetables” (adjusted mean: 165.6 g/day (95% CI: 125.3–206.0)) and “whole grain bread and cereals” (40.4 g/day (22.9–58.0)), and higher amounts of SSB (309.7 g/day (131.3–488.1) than adolescents of same ages living in more educated households (220.2 g/day (179.8–260.7); 59.0 g/day (40.3–77.8); and 157.8 g/day (1.7–314.0), respectively). The same trends were observed in older groups, along with strong consumption disparities according to region of residency, country of birth, and occupation, with specificities according to age. Our findings suggest the need to better explore such disparities by stage of transition to adulthood, and to adapt nutritional health programs.