Résumé : This thesis describes searches for new heavy resonances that decay into dielectron final state and searches for new physics in the top quark sector. The standard model of elementary particle is introduced in the first chapter. After that, a selection of theories beyond the standard model that predict the existence of new massive resonances are described together with an introduction to the effective field theory that is used to search for new physics in top quark sector. Then, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector are introduced, and the techniques used in order to reconstruct the particles produced in the collisions are discussed afterwards. Finally, two separate analyses are presented.The first analysis is searching for new heavy resonances using dielectron final state. As some beyond Standard Model theories predict the existence of new heavy resonances that can decay into dielectron pair, such as the grand unified theories and theories that introduce extra space-like dimensions. An observation of a local “bump” in the dielectron invariant mass spectrum will be an evidence for the existence of a new heavy resonance. The data used is from CMS experiment collected in 2016 with 35.9 fb-1 and in 2017 with 41.4 fb-1. The event selection is optimized in order to be highly efficiency for high energy electron and avoid loosing potential signal events. The leading background is the Drell-Yan process and it is estimated from simulation. The sub-leading background is from ttbar and ttbar-like processes and it is estimated from simulation also. A data-driven method is used to validate the simulation of sub-leading background. The last background from quantum chromodynamics processes is determined by data-driven approach. After having inspected the final dielectron invariant mass spectrum, no significant excess over the standard model background is observed, and upper limit at 95% confidence level is set on the ratio of production cross-section times branching ratio of a new resonance to the one at the Z boson peak.The second analysis is the search for new physics in the top quark sector with dielectron and dimuon final states using data collected by the CMS experiment in 2016 with 35.9 fb-1. Because of its high mass and close to electroweak symmetry breaking scale, the top quark is expected to play an important role in several new physics scenarios. The new physics in top quark pair production and in single top quark production in association with a W boson are investigated and a dedicated multivariate analysis is used to separate these two processes. No significant deviation from the standard model expectation is observed. Results are interpreted in the framework of an effective field theory and constraints on the relevant effective couplings are set at 95% confidence level.