Résumé : Background: This study aims to determine the prevalence and characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus in Belgian cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Methods: Non-duplicate respiratory samples from 510 CF-patients (2012−2013) were examined. One isolate per patient was analysed unless different phenotypes were recovered. Isolates were investigated for mecA/mecC, toxins presence, spa-typing, MLST and SCCmec-typing. Potential livestock-associated (LA) isolates were examined for their immune-evasion-cluster (IEC) genes. Results: S. aureus (n = 380), including 41 small-colony variants (SCVs), were isolated from 66.7% patients. The prevalence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) colonization was 4.9%. Two MRSA isolates carried toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1). Most MRSA (65%) belonged to two nosocomial epidemic clones (CC5, CC8) widespread in Belgium. Methicillin susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) showed great genetic diversity. Five of 33 isolates belonging to potential LA-lineages were IEC negative, including three methicillin-resistant isolates, suggesting an animal origin. Conclusions: The MRSA-prevalence in Belgian CF-patients remained constant (2001−2013), but SCV-prevalence increased. Most MRSA belonged to health-care-associated clones. Three patients carrying LA-MRSA were found, requiring further investigation to determine the risk factors for LA-MRSA acquisition.