Résumé : Type 2 diabetes is a pandemic disease with an incidence that has risen steadily over recent decades. Experimental evidence in animals has demonstrated that intestinal bypass surgery of the upper small intestine, particularly the duodenum, has an important role in glucose homoeostasis. Furthermore, Roux-en-Y bypass performed as bariatric surgery has shown to correct hyperglycaemia from the first postoperative days in obese diabetic patients. Therefore, on the basis of these considerations, duodenal mucosal resurfacing was studied in type 2 diabetes patients as a minimally invasive procedure that could offer an alternative treatment for these patients. Further studies, and particularly large controlled trials, are needed to determine the place of this procedure in the treatment of type 2 diabetes as well as other metabolic diseases such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease/non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.