Résumé : The objective of this paper is twofold. On the one hand, it provides a balanced account of both theoretical and empirical debates on the link between education and growth since World War 2. We point out the lack of a clear-cut consensus.On the other hand, we question the traditional measurements of human capital, and assess their fit to various theoretical models of growth. Subsequently, we provide a new and arguably more appropriate proxy. Using it, we document crude correlations in line with the literature, pointing out that education may not be an appropriate instrument to accelerate growth.