Résumé : Access to finance is a key driver of business activities. It can help firms to grow and innovate. However, due to market failures innovative firms are usually more financinally constrained. To improve access to financing for risky but excellent R&D and innovation investment projects, a new debt-financing instrument called “Risk Sharing Finance Facility” was created in 2007, by a joint initiative of the European Commission and the European Investment Bank. Based on a macro-economic analysis, the aim of the paper is to assess the effect of this new debt-financing instrument on enhancing private R&D expenditure. The database used covers the 28 Member States of the European Union in the period 2007-2016. Private R&D decision is estimated by a function of output growth and several R&D policy instruments. The methodological approach is based on a fixed effect model with control function method in order to correct for endogenous bias of Risk Sharing Finance. The results reveal a positive and significant effect of the new EU policy financing instrument on Private R&D expenditure and its rate of return seems to be higher than that of grants or subsidies. Furthermore, in countries where government funding for private R&D expenditure is above the average, the effect of Risk Sharing Finance shows a lower marginal effect. No evidence of significant differences concerning the size of the effect of the new debt-financing instrument is found when differentiating the level of R&D tax incentives.