Résumé : Tacrolimus (TAC) increases the risk of posttransplant diabetes (PTDM) compared with cyclosporine A (CYC). The present 12-month, multicenter, investigator-driven, prospective, randomized study was designed to assess whether conversion from tacrolimus to CYC can reverse PTDM after renal transplantation. Predominantly white patients with PTDM according to the 2005 American Diabetes Association criteria were randomized to either replacement of TAC with CYC or continuation of their TAC-based regimen after stratification for type of glucose-lowering therapy, steroid therapy, and hepatitis C status. At 12 months, 14 of 41 patients with complete data in the CYC arm (34%; 95%CI 19%-49%) were free of diabetes, whereas this was the case in only 4 of 39 patients (10%; 95%CI 3%-20%) in the TAC arm (P =.01). At 12 months, 39% of patients in the CYC arm were off glucose-lowering medication vs 13% of patients in the TAC arm (P =.01). The CYC group decreased glycated hemoglobin level during the 12-month follow-up, resulting in significantly lower levels compared with the TAC group (6.0 ± 0.9% vs 7.1 ± 1.7% at 12 months; P =.002). In conclusion, replacement of TAC with CYC significantly improves glucose metabolism and has the potential to reverse diabetes during the first year after conversion. (EU Clinical Trials Register No. 2006-001765-42).