Résumé : Introduction: Madagascar has one of the highest prevalence’s of malnutrition worldwide. Dietary practice is an important element to consider in the fight against malnutrition. This study aims to describe mothers’ dietary patterns and dietary diversity and to identify characteristics associated with this dietary diversity. Methods: A cross sectional study was carried-out among 670 non-pregnant mothers aged 18 to 45, who had delivered more than 6 months earlier and were living in the Amoron'i Mania region of Madagascar. The study was conducted during the post-harvest period. A food frequency questionnaire were used to assess the dietary pattern and the women’s dietary diversity score was established from the 24-hour recall data. Results: Almost all (99%) of mothers ate rice every day and 59% ate green leaves. Fifty three percent of mothers had consumed fruit less than once per week, 55% for legumes, 67% for vegetables and 91% for meat. Dietary diversity score ranged from 1 to 7 and 88% of mothers had a low dietary diversity score (<5). On multivariate analysis, factors significantly associated with low dietary diversity were: low education level (AOR=3.80 [1.58-9.02], p=0.003), parity higher than 3 (AOR=2.09 [1.22-3.56], p=0.007), birth interval ≥ 24 months (AOR=4.01 [2.08-7.74], p<0.001), rice production availability ≤ 6 months (AOR=2.33 [1.30-4.17], p=0.013), low attendance at market (AOR=4.20 [1.63-10.83], p<0.001) and low movable property possession score (AOR=4.87 [2.15-11.04], p<0.001). Conclusion: Mother’s experience poor diet diversity. Unfavorable socioeconomic conditions are associated with this poor food diversification.