Résumé : BACKGROUND/PURPOSE:Preoperative selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) may improve the results of partial hepatectomy (PH) or radiofrequency destruction (RF) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with cirrhosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and safety of this combined approach.METHODS:Patients with cirrhosis and HCC selected for PH or RF were prospectively included and systematically proposed for preoperative SIRT. Feasibility and safety of SIRT and post-SIRT PH or RF were assessed.RESULTS:Thirty patients were included. SIRT was contraindicated in seven, due to lack of access to tumour artery or to hepato-pulmonary shunts. SIRT was performed in 23 patients without significant complications. Post-SIRT, surgery was refuted in seven patients, due to tumour progression or the patient's deteriorating condition. After surgery, major complications were observed in 2/16 patients (12.5%) and one patient died 52 days post-surgery. A major tumour pathological response was seen in most patients who underwent surgery after SIRT.CONCLUSIONS:On intention-to-treat basis, the overall feasibility of combining preoperative SIRT and surgery was limited. Preoperative SIRT did not increase expected operative morbidity, but post-SIRT, a third of patients were refuted for surgery. Accurate selection criteria and potential long-term oncological benefit of this approach remains to be determined. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01686880.