Résumé : Alcohol dependence is currently one of the most serious public health problems. Indeed, 3-8% of all deaths worldwide are attributable to effects of alcohol consumption. Although the first step in alcohol dependence treatment is straightforward, the main problem for clinicians lies with the prevention of relapse, as 40-70% of patients who only undergo psychosocial therapy resume alcohol use within a year following treatment. This review of the literature regarding event-related potentials (ERPs) is focused on two major neurocognitive factors that partially account for the inability of many alcoholics to remain abstinent: attentional biases towards alcohol-related stimuli that increase the urge to drink, and impaired response inhibition towards these cues that makes it more difficult for alcoholics to resist the temptation to drink. On this basis, we propose new research avenues to better implement ERPs in the management of alcohol disorders, according to four main directions that relate to (1) the development of ERP serial recordings; (2) the promotion of a multi-component ERP approach; (3) the definition of multi-site guidelines; and (4) the use of more representative laboratory situations through the use of more compelling environments.