Résumé : This study aims to investigate the prevalence of clinically relevant carbapenemases genes (blaKPC, blaNDM andblaOXA-48) in water samples collected over one-year period from hospital (H), raw and treated wastewater of twowastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) as well as along the Zenne River (Belgium). The genes were quantified inboth particle-attached (PAB) and free-living (FLB) bacteria. Our results showed that absolute abundances werethe highest in H waters. Although absolute abundances were significantly reduced in WWTP effluents, the relativeabundance (normalized per 16S rRNA) was never lowered through wastewater treatment. Particularly, forthe PAB the relative abundances were significantly higher in the effluents respect to the influents of both WWTPsfor all the genes. The absolute abundances along the Zenne River increased from upstream to downstream,peaking after the release of WWTPs effluents, in both fractions. Our results demonstrated that blaKPC, blaNDM andblaOXA-48 are widely distributed in the Zenne as a consequence of chronic discharge from WWTPs. To conclude,the levels of carbapenemases genes are significantly lower than other genes conferring resistance to more widelyused antibiotics (analyzed in previous studies carried out at the same sites), but could raise up to the levels ofhigh prevalent resistance genes.