Résumé : Nowadays, tropical zones are characterized by a catastrophic decline of forest ecosystems areas which play however an important role in climate regulation and biodiversity conservation. There are numerous and complex causes of deforestation. Even if agriculture is one of the main causes of deforestation in most tropical regions, sub-Saharan Africa had exceptional influences related to social conflicts. In Burundi, socio-political instability which occurred in 1993 also led to massive waves of displaced people, essentially farmers. The present study aims to analyze the land cover spatiotemporal dynamics and focuses particularly on the influence of this population forced to migrate. The study combines satellite images analysis with field observations to analyze land cover dynamic in the camp's surrounding zone. The negative impact of the socio-political instability has been demonstrated by vegetation anthropization decrease when the distance from the camps increases. The greatest anthropogenic pressure which is observed during the period that followed the outbreak of the socio-political instability also confirms this negative impact. The rehabilitation of those deforested or degraded zones is therefore essential.