Résumé : Treatment of tuberculosis still represent a major public health issue. The emergence of multi-and extensively-drug resistant (MDR and XDR) Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical strains further pinpoint the urgent need for new anti-tuberculous drugs. We previously showed that vancomycin can target mycobacteria lacking cell wall integrity, especially those lacking related phthiocerol and phthiodolone dimycocerosates, PDIM A and PDIM B, respectively. As aloe emodin was previously hypothesized to be able to target the synthesis of mycobacterial cell wall lipids, we tested its ability to potentiate glycopeptides antimycobacterial activity. The aloe emodin with the vancomycin induced a combination effect beyond simple addition, close to synergism, at a concentration lower to reported IC50 cytotoxic value, on M. bovis BCG and on H37Rv M. tuberculosis. Interestingly, out of six MDR and pre-XDR clinical strains, one showed a strong synergic susceptibility to the drug combination. Mycobacterial cell wall lipid analyses highlighted a selective reduction of PDIM B by aloe emodin.