Résumé : The sesquiterpene polygodial is an agonist of the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1). Our group recently reported the synthesis and anticancer effects of polygodial and its derivatives, and showed that these compounds retain activity against apoptosis- and multidrug-resistant cancer cells. Herein, we tested the inhibitory effect of these compounds on the activity of the enzyme Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) from kidney (α1 isoform) and brain (α2 and α3 isoforms) guinea pig extracts. Polygodial (1) displayed a dose-dependent inhibition of both kidney and brain purified NKA preparations, with higher sensitivity for the cerebral isoforms. Polygo-11,12-diol (2) and C11,C12-pyridazine derivative (3) proved to be poor inhibitors. Unsaturated ester (4) and 9-epipolygodial (5) inhibited NKA preparations from brain and kidney, with the same inhibitory potency. Nevertheless, they did not achieve maximum inhibition even at higher concentration. Comparing the inhibitory potency in crude homogenates and purified preparations of NKA, compounds 4 and 5 revealed a degree of selectivity toward the renal enzyme. Kinetic studies showed a non-competitive inhibition for Na+ and K+ by compounds 1, 4 and 5 and for ATP by 1 and 4. However, compound 5 presented a competitive inhibition type. Furthermore, K+-activated p-nitrophenylphosphatase activity of these purified preparations was not inhibited by 1, 4 and 5, suggesting that these compounds acted in the initial phase of the enzyme's catalytic cycle. These findings suggest that the antitumor action of polygodial and its analogues may be linked to their NKA inhibitory properties and reinforce that NKA may be an important target for cancer therapy.