Résumé : Optimal management of patients with locally advanced non–small cell lung cancer remains challenging in the context of this heterogeneous disease. Despite aggressive therapeutic approaches, survival benefits are still unsatisfactory for what might be viewed as a localized malignancy. A combined modality approach offers patients superior outcomes, especially because technological advances and refined surgical procedures now provide better results with fewer complications. Nevertheless, several features of therapy remain controversial and lack formal prospective data. Traditional cytotoxic chemoradiation therapy may have reached a plateau and future perspectives opting to integrate molecularly targeted agents and immunotherapy might be the way to improve outcomes in this disease subset.