Résumé : Advances on the ecology and evolution of adaptation to metal toxicity are based on studying metallophytes that are not restricted to soils strongly enriched in trace elements. The evolution of Cu and Co tolerance and accumulation, which principally occurs among the Copperbelt of Central Africa, is poorly known. In this paper, we studied Cu and Co tolerance and accumulation in a facultative metallophyte occupying a very broad ecological niche in southeastern Democratic Republic of Congo: Anisopappus chinensis (Asteraceae). The population variation in Cu and Co tolerance and accumulation was experimentally investigated using four metallicolous and two non-metallicolous populations from contrasted habitats. Surprisingly, Cu tolerance was poorly expressed in metallicolous populations grown in hydroponics, suggesting that specific rhizosphere processes may account for the ability to grow without toxicity symptoms under high Cu concentration on metalliferous soils. Population variation in Co tolerance and accumulation was demonstrated, which positively correlated to the concentration of Co in the native soil. Increased tolerance seems to have evolved in populations originating from Co-enriched soils. Foliar Co accumulation above 300 mg kg−1 dry weight with increased translocation was observed in the most tolerant populations, possibly making such populations promising materials to test for Co-phytomining applications.