Résumé : Background: Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) become an attractive research topic because of their crucial roles in tissue repair and regenerative medicine. Foreskin is considered as a valuable tissue source containing immunotherapeutic MSCs (FSK-MSCs). Results: In this work, we used aldehyde dehydrogenase activity (ALDH) assay (ALDEFLUOR™) to isolate and therefore characterize subsets of FSK-MSCs. According to their ALDH activity, we were able to distinguish and sort by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) two subsets of FSK-MSCs (referred as ALDH+ and ALDH-). Consequently, these subsets were characterized by profiling the gene expression related to the main properties of MSCs (proliferation, response to hypoxia, angiogenesis, phenotype, stemness, multilineage, hematopoiesis and immunomodulation). We thus demonstrated by Real Time PCR several relevant differences in gene expression based on their ALDH activity. Conclusion: Taken together, this preliminary study suggests that distinct subsets of FSK-MSCs with differential gene expression profiles depending of ALDH activity could be identified. These populations could differ in terms of biological functionalities involving the selection by ALDH activity as useful tool for potent therapeutic applications. However, functional studies should be conducted to confirm their therapeutic relevance.