Résumé : Background: This article summarizes the European Renal Association – European Dialysis and Transplant Association (ERA-EDTA) Registry’s 2015 Annual Report. It describes the epidemiology of renal replacement therapy (RRT) for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in 2015 within 36 countries. Methods: In 2016 and 2017, the ERA-EDTA Registry received data on patients who were undergoing RRT for ESRD in 2015, from 52 national or regional renal registries. Thirty-two registries provided individual patient-level data and 20 provided aggregated-level data. The incidence, prevalence and survival probabilities of these patients were determined. Results: In 2015, 81 373 individuals commenced RRT for ESRD, equating to an overall unadjusted incidence rate of 119 per million population (pmp). The incidence ranged by 10-fold, from 24 pmp in Ukraine to 232 pmp in the Czech Republic. Of the patients commencing RRT, almost two-thirds were men, over half were aged 65 years and a quarter had diabetes mellitus as their primary renal diagnosis. Treatment modality at the start of RRT was haemodialysis for 85% of the patients, peritoneal dialysis for 11% and a kidney transplant for 4%. By Day 91 of commencing RRT, 82% of patients were receiving haemodialysis, 13% peritoneal dialysis and 5% had a kidney transplant. On 31 December 2015, 546 783 individuals were receiving RRT for ESRD, corresponding to an unadjusted prevalence of 801 pmp. This ranged throughout Europe by more than 10-fold, from 178 pmp in Ukraine to 1824 pmp in Portugal. In 2015, 21 056 kidney transplantations were performed, equating to an overall unadjusted transplant rate of 31 pmp. This varied from 2 pmp in Ukraine to 94 pmp in the Spanish region of Cantabria. For patients commencing RRT during 2006–10, the 5-year unadjusted patient survival probabilities on all RRT modalities combined was 50.0% (95% confidence interval 49.9–50.1).